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          • 1. 台湾省政府科研基金 · 2014

            1. 来源类别: 应用研究/学术补助

              负责人:郑光炜 机构:长庚大学化工与材料工程学系(所)
              太阳能源之应用为近年来极为重要之研究发展领域,主要应用为各类光电池与热能应用,应用太阳光能产生低成本之电力,为未来洁净能源供应之最终目标。技术发展为大面积、低成本之染料敏化太阳电池与量子点敏化太阳电池制备技术。目前以有机染料敏化太阳电池最高效率可达12.3%,以PbSe为主之量子点太阳电池转化效率也可超过6%以上,但大面积制备与价格成本仍表现不佳。材料之化学组成结构、光学性质、与低成本之制造技术方面,仍有许多问题待克服,子计划一之研究内容,目的在于研发高效率、低成本之量子点/染料敏化工作电极、并进而制备转化效率为10%之量子点/染料敏化太阳电池。研究主题分别为量子点硫化物与量子点硒化物制备、奈米金属氧化物柱状阵列之开发与光电池元件制备。使用水热/溶热法制备不同结构组成之量子点硫化物与量子点硒化物材料,藉由不同制程参数研究量子点硫化物与量子点硒化物材料之晶型、表面结构等性质对于光电池效能的影响。光电池组装与量测方面,包括大面积奈米金属氧化物柱状阵列制备、元件设计与制造与光电转化效率测量。以既有之基础,开发低成本之量子点/染料敏化太阳电池,作为未来低成本高效率太阳电池技术之重要基础。...
              关键词:染料敏化太阳电池,电化学技术,量子点

          • 2. 台湾省政府科研基金 · 2012

            1. 来源类别: 技术发展 / 学术补助

              负责人:吴仁铭 机构:清华大学通讯工程研究所
              无线通信系统中的数位调变基本上可以视为一种晶格结构,多输入多输出(MIMO)的检测问 题也可以理解为寻找最接近的格点问题。晶格正交化辅助MIMO 检测已被证明可以有效达到全多 元增益(full diversity)的效益。但目前的研究文献已知的晶格正交化辅助之演算法复杂度仍相当高,或 者收敛速度慢而不稳定。因此在此计划中,我们提出研究一个针对收敛速度及复杂度固定的晶格正 交化辅助演算法。在这个计划中,我们处理晶格正交化MIMO 检测中的排序的问题。在这个计划 中,我们提出了一个基底的筛选和排序方法,以促进晶格正交化算法的收敛,我们建议提出一个新 的度量称为正交缺陷补数,来辅助传统正交缺陷(OD)和Seysen 正交性量测。 我们开发的晶格正交化算法是能够适用于任何类型的MIMO 检测器。由于低复杂度和错误率性 能在SDR MIMO 检测证明德到相当好的平衡,在这个计划中,我们特别运用晶格正交化算法于半正 定松弛(SDR)的MIMO 检测器。目前的研究文献已知运用半正定松弛法(Semidefinite Relaxation)之 多输入多输出侦测器复杂度比球状解码器或最大似然侦测器低很多,且在高天线数(>16)时能达到接近 全多元增益的效能,故半正定松弛法是相当具有吸引力的MIMO 检测器。而这个计划提案动机之一 源起于我们观察到目前运用半正定松弛法之多输入多输出侦测器时,存在多元增益损失(diversity loss) 的现象,此现象在高阶QAM 调变及低天线数(£8)时更为明显,在目前所有的研究文献中,尚无有效 的对策解决此一问题。我们将研究新型的晶格正交化辅助之演算法运用于半正定松弛法之多输入多输 出侦测器是我们的新的构想,目前仍无相关文献有结合两者之作法。 在第一年中,我们计划专注于研究晶格正交化辅助之演算法收敛速度、复杂度的问题。这个 想法在于观察到目前最广泛接受的晶格正交化辅助演算法中,包括Lenstra-Lenstra-Lovasz (LLL) 和 Seysen 演算法都存在复杂度过高及收敛速度太慢的问题尚待解决。在此计划中,我们预计提出 一个新的基底选择机制,使得在晶格正交化过程中,经由导入排序的设计而促进收敛的速度。传 统在LLL 或Seysen 演算法中使用正交瑕疵(Orthogonality Defect, OD)或Seysen Measure (SM) 来当 作基底选择机制,OD 或SM 各有优点; 在此计划中,我们预计提出一个新的正交瑕疵补数 (Orthogonality Defect Complement, ODC)当作基底选择机制,连结OD 及 SM 的优点,同时采用双 轨缩减(dual reduction) 机制。在我们的先期研究中显示,应该会有较快的收敛速度及较佳错误率, 在计划中有待进一步做理论分析、证明、及模拟验证。 在第二年中,我们计划研究运用晶格正交化辅助演算法于半正定松弛法之多输入多输出侦测器 中,由于无法在CVX 上直接把晶格正交化辅助演算法套到半正定松弛法中,我们计划研究一个客 制的内置点(Interior Point Method, IPM)半正定松弛法使得整合晶格正交化辅助演算法成为可行。另 外我们也希望研究一个根据通道状况可以适应性终止演算法的机制,使得多输入多输出侦测器可以 在不影响错误率的前提下,降低复杂度。...
              关键词:多输入多输出侦测;晶格正交化;最大似然侦测;半正定松弛;凸型最佳化;

          • 3. U.S. National Science Foundation · 2016

            1. 来源类别: Standard Grant

              负责人:Kai-Mei Fu 机构:University of Washington
              Title: A semiconductor-diamond nanophotonic transmitter for long-distance quantum communication Nontechnical description: Quantum communication is fundamentally secure. Currently, quantum-secure communication distance is limited to less than 100 km by photon absorption in fibers. Theoretically, this limitation can be overcome by a network of quantum repeaters relying on entanglement between communication nodes. The experimental quantum communication community has primarily focused on higher performance metrics for a single device. As a result, proof-of-principle experiments illustrating the potential of quantum technologies for secure communication have been realized utilizing physically large, expensive, and non-scalable technologies at cryogenic temperatures. The critical question remains whether long-distance communication, utilizing quantum repeaters, can be realized in a scalable platform. To reach this goal, this work employs two transformative approaches. First, an integrated hybrid-materials platform that has the potential to realize all device functionalities required for a quantum transmitter is adopted. Second, state-of-the-art computational techniques are utilized to design photonic devices that exhibit unprecedented nonlinear capabilities, enabling the desired performance under the constraints of compatibility with semiconductor fabrication processing. In particular, compact devices are designed to efficiently extract photons emitted by a defect in diamond; the extracted photons are then routed into a nonlinear device that efficiently converts them to telecom wavelengths; finally, the photons are coupled into an optical fiber for low-loss, long-distance propagation. The technologies engineered to reach this goal are expected to also advance the current state of optical information processing and sensing, due to improved nonlinear optical and reconfigurable devices. The diverse team of investigators will train the next generation of photonics engineers in skills including nanophotonic design, nanofabrication, optical spectroscopy, and integrated quantum technologies for tomorrow's optoelectronics industry. Recruitment at all levels, from pre-college to postdoctoral, will have a focus on broadening participation to further integrate women, underrepresented minorities and veterans through direct integration into the scientific team as well as outreach efforts including a proposed EFRI-REM residential program and Science Cafés to engage the investigators? local communities in the fields of optical and quantum communication. Technical description: This proposal seeks to realize a photonic integrated circuit for creating and transmitting indistinguishable spin-entangled photons at telecom wavelength. Emission of spin-entangled photons from diamond color centers will be enhanced by a waveguide-coupled resonant plasmonic device, providing an avenue toward operation at elevated temperature. These photons will be spectrally filtered and dynamically routed via an optical switching network to an integrated quantum frequency converter. The resulting telecom-wavelength single photons will be further filtered before off-chip coupling to a fiber-optic cable. The design of the resonant enhancement and nonlinear frequency conversion devices will be performed by a novel inverse-design method based on topology optimization that has only recently become tractable with available computation resources. Several key avenues are identified to mitigate against unavoidable device inhomogeneities and enhance the prospects for scalability. Nonlinear frequency conversion will simultaneously perform frequency conversion and spectral which-path erasure necessary for quantum entanglement. Tunable ring resonators simultaneously provide filtering and routing capabilities. In the short-term, realization of the quantum communication transmitter will require unprecedented integration of quantum optics, nanophotonics, plasmonics, and nonlinear optics. In the long-term, the proposed technology has the potential to enable long-distance, fiber-based, unconditionally secure communication....
              关键词:EFRI RESEARCH PROJECTS;QUANTUM INFORMATION SCIENCE;EFRI RESEARCH PROJECTS;Optics and Photonics;RES EXPER FOR UNDERGRAD-SUPPLT;

          • 4. U.S. - Research Project · 2012

            1. 来源类别: Research Projects

              负责人:GALLAY, PHILIPPE ANDRE; 机构:SCRIPPS RESEARCH INSTITUTEOF UNITED STATES
              PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The goal of this project is to conduct in vitro and in vivo studies designed to support the preclinical development of short peptides as novel anti-HIV microbicides. There is an urgent need for the development of safe, effective topical microbicides to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV and to allow the female partner to take personal responsibility for use and application. The development of a safe, effective acceptable topical microbicide to prevent the sexual transmission of HIV could play a major role in worldwide reduction of the over 14,000 new HIV infections per day, and potentially save millions of lives.DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We identified a short peptide SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK called C5A, which represents a novel class of microbicidal candidates. C5A neutralizes HIV at an nM-M range without apparent cytotoxicity to human cells. C5A corresponds to a small (18 amino acids) N-terminal region (aa 3-20) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) (477 amino acids). The sequence of C5A encompasses the region responsible for the anchoring of NS5A into the ER membrane. Importantly, in contrast to C5A (18 aa), full length NS5A (477 aa) does not inhibit HIV infection. We demonstrated that C5A disrupts the HIV membrane, but preserves the integrity of the cellular plasma membrane. The HIV membrane rupture is specific because C5A does not disturb the integrity of the plasma membrane of human cells even when used at high doses and because it does not inhibit the infection of other enveloped viruses such as influenza and vesicular stomatitis viruses. C5A possesses multiple attractive microbicidal properties: it i) blocks HIV infection of primary targets including T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells;ii) exhibits a broad range of antiviral activity against primary HIV isolates, multi-drug resistant HIV isolates, SIV and SHIV;iii) interrupts an ongoing T cell infection;iv) prevents transmigration of HIV through primary human genital epithelial cells;v) blocks infection of dendritic and Langerhans cells ex vivo (skin tissues);vi) prevents HIV transfer from dendritic and Langerhans cells to T cells ex vivo;vii) is extremely efficacious since less than 15 min of exposure suffices for C5A to neutralize HIV;viii) is potent for a considerable length of time both prior to (at least 1 h) and after (at least 1 h) addition of HIV to cells;ix) is potent at a low pH;x) is soluble in water at inhibitory concentrations;xi) is not toxic to commensal Lactobacilli present in the vaginal tract;xii) exhibits minimal adverse changes, inflammation and toxicity in cervicovaginal tissue in vivo;xiii) is not immunogenic;xiv) does not affect cellular signaling pathways;xv) apparently does not allow viral development resistance;xvi) efficiently blocks HIV infectivity when diluted in genital fluids;and most importantly xvii) vaginal application of C5A offers complete protection against a vaginal viral challenge in the humanized BLT mouse HIV transmission model. Thus, C5A represents the prototype of a new generation of microbicidal agents that may have promise for HIV prevention. In this application, we would like to follow up on these exciting data by fully exploring the possibility that C5A represents a true microbicidal candidate. In the first aim of this application, we propose to conduct a series of experiments aimed at identifying the component of the viral membrane to which C5A binds because the C5A ligand, which resides in the membrane of HIV, represents a potential target for the development of a novel class of anti-HIV therapies with an unusual mechanism of antiviral action. Interestingly, we obtained several lines of evidence that the sphingolipid called dihydrosphingomyelin (DHSM) represents the main target of C5A in the HIV membrane: i) DHSM, incorporated into HIV particles, is specifically pulled down by C5A beads;ii) C5A binds directly to adsorbed DHSM;iii) C5A ruptures liposomes constituted with DHSM;and most importantly iv) pre-incubation of C5A with soluble DHSM prevents HIV rupture by C5A and preserves HIV infectivity. The amphipathic property of C5A, the identity of DHSM as the C5A target in the HIV membrane, and the specific C5A rupture of DHSM-containing liposomes or HIV particles, provide the first hint for the antiviral mechanism of C5A action: C5A, which encompasses the N-terminal region responsible for the anchoring of NS5A into the ER membrane, by binding to DHSM enriched within the HIV membrane, disturbs the integrity of the viral membrane due to its amphipathic nature. In the second aim of this application, we propose to optimize the in vitro potency and in vivo safety of C5A by creating a second generation of peptides using the parental C5A peptide as the archetype. All newly synthesized peptides will be tested in genital fluids for their in vitro microbicidal properties. The most potent compounds among the newly synthesized peptides will be selected. Remarkably, we found that acetylation, amidation and glycosylation of C5A greatly enhanced C5A anti-HIV activities in genital fluids. This is the proof-of-concept for the feasibility of identifying C5A derivates with enhanced anti-HIV activities. In the third aim, the most potent C5A derivates will be assessed for safety and efficacy in the HIV vaginal transmission BLT mouse model. Kinetic administration studies will be executed to determine how long before and/or after the viral challenge C5A precludes HIV transmission. In the fourth aim, safety and efficacy pilot studies will be conducted in another SIV/HIV vaginal transmission animal model: the progesterone-treated macaque model. If similar protective results were obtained using the two transmission models, it would further validate the use of these models for the screening of microbicidal candidates. In addition, protective results would provide proof-of-concept of the usefulness of topically applied microbicides, such as C5A, to prevent genital HIV transmission....
              关键词:Acetylation;Address;Affect;AIDS prevention;amidation;Amino Acids;Animal Model;anti-HIV microbicide;Anti-HIV Therapy;Antiviral Agents;Binding;Bone Marrow;Cell membrane;Cells;comparative efficacy;Complement 5a;cytotoxicity;Data;Dendritic Cells;Development;Dissection;Dose;Epithelial Cells;Exhibits;Female;follow-up;Generations;Genital system;glycosylation;Goals;Grant;Health;Hepatitis C virus;HIV;HIV Infections;Human;immunogenic;improved;In Vitro;in vivo;in vivo Model;Infection;Inflammation;

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